Investigation of the Bed and Structural Slopes on Bed Shear Stress and Flow Characteristics around an Impermeable Groyne

Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Civil Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz, Iran.


In this paper, effects of the cross shore and groyne wall slopes on flow parameters around an impermeable groyne were considered using a three-dimensional numerical CFD model (i.e., FLUENT). The k-ε turbulence model was used to evaluate the Reynolds stresses. The model was first applied to a vertical groyne on a flat bed and the model results were compared with the relevant experimental data. The results of this numerical test showed good agreements with the corresponding experimental measurements, in terms of water elevation, velocity magnitudes and reattachment length. The model was then applied to a series of structures with different lateral wall slopes on various cross sectional bed slopes. The numerical model results revealed that by increasing the cross shore bed slope in any case of the structural slopes, the magnitude of the maximum velocity and bed shear stresses decreased. These values decreased further as the structural slope reduced.


  1. Shields F. D. Jr, Cooper C. M, Knight S. S (1995) Experiment in stream restoration. J Hyd Eng 121(6):494-502.
  2. Fredsoe J, and Deigaard R (1992) Mechanics of Coastal Sediment Transport. Advanced Series on Ocean Engineering, Volume 3, World Scientific Publications.
  3. Ouillon S, and Dartus D (1997) Three dimensional computation of flow around groyne. J Hyd Eng 123(11):962-970.
  4. Uijttewaal W. S. J (2005) Effects of groyne layout on the flow in groyne fields: laboratory experiments. J Hyd Eng 131(9):782-791.
  5. Molls T, Chaudhry M. H and Khan K.W (1995) Numerical simulation of 2-D flow near a spur-dike. Advances in Water Resources 18(4):227-236.
  6. Tominaga A, Nagao M and Nezu I (1997) Flow structures and mixing processes around porous and submerged spur-dikes. Environmental and Coastal Hydraulics, 251-256.
  7. Zhou Y, Michiue M and Hinokidani O (2000) A numerical study on the comparison of 3-D flow properties around submerged spur-dikes. Annual J Hyd Eng, JSCE, 44:605-610.
  8. Uijttewaal W. S. J, Lehman D and Mazijk A (2001) Exchange processes between a river and its groyne fields: model experimental. J Hyd Eng 127(11):928-936.
  9. Kuhnle R. A, Alonso C. A and Shieldsjr F. D (2002) Local scour associated with angled spur dike. J Hyd Eng 128(12):1087-1093.
  10. Ettema R and Muste M (2004) Scale effects in flume experimental on flow around a spur dike in flatbed channel. J Hyd Eng 130(7): 635-646.
  11. Yossef M. F. M (2004) The effects of the submergence level on the resistance of groynes: an experimental investigation. The 6th Int. Conf. on Hydro-science and Engineering, (ICHE)
  12. Nagata N, Hosoda T, Nakato T and Muramoto Yoshio (2005) Three dimensional numerical around river hydraulic structures. J Hyd Eng 131(12):1074-1087.
  13. Xuelin T, Xiang D and Zhicong C (2006) Large eddy simulation of three-dimensional flows around a spur dike. Tsinghua Science & Technology 11(1):117-123.
  14. Chen C.J and Jaw S.Y (1998) Fundamentals of Turbulence Modeling. Taylor & Francis, USA.
  15. Holtz K.P (1991) Numerical simulation of recirculating flow at groynes. Computer Methods in Water Resources, C.A Brebbia, D Quazar and D. Ben Sari, Eds, Springer Verlag, New York, Inc., New York, N.Y. 2(2): 463-477.
  16. Fluent 5.2 (1998) User's Guide. Fluent Inc. Lebanon, New Hampshire, U.S.A.
  17. Keshavarz, M.H, Hakimzadeh H and Ghaldarbandi R (2008) Three-dimensional numerical simulation of flow pattern around perpendicular and inclined groynes with respect to various boundary conditions. J Marine Eng, Fall & Winter 2008-2009, 4(8):11-24.