Effect of rice husk ash on the swelling pressure of bentonite soil stabilized with lime in the presence or lack of sulfate

Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Civil Engineering , Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.


Lime is an effective substance to decrease the swelling of expansive soils. The effective use of lime as a stabilizing agent in the presence of sulfate under some circumstances has been questioned due to the formation of ettringite. In this research, the effect of the addition of rice husk ash (RHA) on the swelling pressure of a bentonite soil (B) modified with lime (L) and calcium sulfate or gypsum (G) was investigated. Nine groups of twin compacted samples, namely, bentonite soil (B), B + L (3% by dry weight), B+3%L+ 5%G, B+3%L+RHA (5, 10 and 15% by dry weight, respectively) and B+3%L+5%G+RHA (5,10 and 15%, respectively), were prepared and tested immediately for 1-D constant volume swelling pressure measurements. Similar groups of samples were prepared and tested after 7 and 28 days of curing. The results indicated the effect of RHA in decreasing the magnitude of swelling pressure in comparison with untreated and treated soil without RHA


  1. Slater, D. E. (1983).” Potential Expansive Soils in Arabian Peninsula”, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 109, 5, 744-746.
  2. Day, R. W. (1992). “Swell Versusb Saturation for Compacted Clay”, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 118, No. 8, 1272-1278.
  3. Osinubi, K. J. (2006). “Influence of Compactive Efforts on Lime-Slag Treated Tropical Black, Clay”, Journal of Materials in Civil Engr. Vol. 18, No. 2, 175-181.
  4. Bin, S.; Zhibin, L.; Yi, C.; and Xiaoping, Z. (2007).” Micropore Structure of Aggregates in Treated Soils”,  Journal of Material in Civil Engr. Vol. 19. No. 1, 99-104.
  5. Peethamparan, S. and Olek, J. (2008). “Study of the Effectiveness of Cement kiln Dust in Stabilizing Na-Montmorillonite Clay “, Journal of Materials in Civil Engr. Vol. 20, No. 2 , 137-146.
  6. Madhyannapu, R. S. and Puppala A. J. (2014). “Design and Construction Guidelines for Deep Soil Mixing to Stabilize Expansive Soil”, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenviron. Engr., Vol. 140, No. 9.
  7. Elkady, T.Y.; Al-Mahbashi, A. M.; and Al-Refea, T. O. (2015). “Stress Dependent Soil-Water Characteristic Curves of Lime – Treated Expansive Clay”, Journal of Materials in Civil Engr. Vol. 27, No.3.
  8. Thyagaraj, T.; Thomas, S. R.; and Das, A. P. (2017). “ Physico – Chemical Effect on Shinkage Behavior of Compacted Expansive Clay. “ International Journal of Geomechanics, Vol. 17, No. 2.
  9. Mitchell. J.K. (1981). “Soil Improvement State of the Art report”. Proc. 10th int. conf. on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engr. 4,509-565.
  10. Mitchell, J. K. (1986). “Practical Problems from Surprising Soil Behavior.” J. of Geotech. Geoenviron. Engng. Division, 112 (3): 259-289.
  11. Mitchell, J.K., Dermatas, D. (1992). “Clay Soil Heave Caused by Lime-Sulfate Reactions”. ASTM STP 1135: Innovations and Uses for Lime, Philadelphia, 1992.
  12. Petry, T. M., and Little, D. N. (1992). “Update on Sulfate-Induced Heave in Treated Clays: Problematic Sulfate Levels”. In Transportation Research Record 1362, TRB, National Research Council, Washington, DC, 1992, 51.
  13. Petry, T. M. (1994). “Studies of Factors Causing and Influencing Localized Heave of Lime Treated Clay Soils (Sulfate Induced Heave)”. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS.
  14. Dermatas, D. (1995). “Ettringite_induced Swelling in Soils”: State-of-the-Art. Appl. Mech. Rev. 48(10), 659-673.
  15. Puppala, A. J.; Intharasombat, N. and Vempati, R. K. (2005). “Experimental studies on Ettringite induced heaving in soils “, J. of Geotech. And Geoenviron engng, Vol. 131, Issue 3.
  16. Little, D.N., Nair, S.,( 2009). “Recommended Practice for Stabilization for Sulfate Rich Subgrade Soils.” National Highway Cooperative Research Program, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies.
  17. Little, D.N.; Nair, S.; and Herbert, B. (2010).” Addressing Sulfate-Induced Heave in Lime Treated Soils.” J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 2010, 136(1): 110-118.
  18. Pakbaz, M.S. and Keshani, A. (2017). “Evaluation of Time rate of swelling pressure development due to the presence of sulfate in clayey soils stabilized with lime”. International Journal of Geomates, Vol. 12, No. 32, 161-165.
  19. Rice market monitor. FAO. <http://www.fao.org/economic/est/publications/rice-publications/rice-market-monitor-rmm/en/> FAO (accesed 19.05.14).
  20. Mehta, P.K. (1977), “Properties of blended cements, cements made from rice husk ash,” Journal of American Concrete Institute, 74, 440-442.
  21. Mehta, P.K. (1979).“The chemistry and technology of cements made from rice husk ash,” Proceedings UNIDO/ESCAP/RCTT Workshop on Rice-Husk Ash Cement, Peshavar, Pakistan, 113-122.
  22. Muntohar , A. S. and Hantoro, G.. (2000), “Influence of Rice Husk Ash and Lime on Engineering Properties of a clayee subgrade,” Mhtml:file://A: /Rice Husk Ash and Lime.
  23. James and Rao (1986). “Reactivity of Rice Husk Ash”, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 16,  296-302.
  24. Real, C.; Alcala, M. D.; and Criado, J. M. (1996). “Preparation of Silica from Rice Husks”, J. Am. Ceram.Soc., 79 (8), 2012-2016.
  25. Viet-Thien-An, V., Robler, C.,Danh-Dai, B. and Horst-Michael, L. (2014) , “Rice husk ash as both pozzolanic admixture and internal curing agent in ultra-high performance concrete, ”Cement & Concrete Composites, 53, 270–278.
  26. Mesri, G., Pakbaz, M. C. and Cepeda-Diaz, A.F. (1994). “Meaning, Measurement and Field Application of Swelling Pressure of Clay Shales.” Geotechnique, 44(1), 129-145.
  27. ASTM. (2010). “Standard Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils.” ASTM D4318-10e1, West Conshohocken, PA.
  28. ASTM. (1996). “Standard Test Methods for One-Dimensional Swell or Settlement Potential of Cohesive Soils.” ASTM D4546-96, West Conshohocken, PA.